ニキータ・フルシチョフの孫娘*1であるニーナ・フルシチョワ(Nina L. Khrushcheva)ニュースクール大学教授が、Project Syndicate論説で新たな全体主義の台頭に警鐘を鳴らしている(H/T Mostly Economics*2

Even though economic conditions were dire in the USSR’s final months, people could see the freedoms that were coming and, unlike today, were willing to stand up for them. Indeed, in the early years of the democratic transition that followed, most post-communist voters did not succumb to the temptation to elect extremists who promised to end the hard times they were enduring. Instead, they usually chose the most sensible candidate available.
Since then, the world has been turned upside down. As life has gotten easier, with people’s material expectations largely met, voters have increasingly favored neo-autocrats who promise to “protect” the people from this or that threat. Russian President Vladimir Putin, of course, leads this group, but there are also Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán and Czech President Miloš Zeman. And the trend extends beyond the former communist countries to include, for example, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
The French philosopher Jean-François Revel saw the rise of violent dictatorships in the twentieth century as driven by a “totalitarian temptation.” What we are witnessing today is something a bit less sinister – call it an “authoritarian temptation.” But it is a growing threat not only to democracy, but also to global stability. After all, the one thing today’s autocrats have in common with their totalitarian predecessors is contempt for the rule of law, both domestically and internationally.
One cause for this shift toward authoritarianism is that many countries no longer view the United States as a beacon of democracy and a model of stability and prosperity to be emulated.・・・
Given the reach of today’s mass media and social networks, only a few people must be targeted to cow the rest of society into conforming to the leader’s vision. So, instead of building gulags, neo-authoritarians launch criminal cases. The defendants range from political opponents and critics in Russia – such as the oil oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky and the anti-corruption lawyer Alexei Navalny – to independent journalists in Erdoğan’s Turkey.
Citizens seem convinced. ...
When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, people did not understand the link between capitalism and democracy. Many wanted a Western lifestyle, with access to the kinds of jobs and goods available in the US, but seemed not to recognize that access to that lifestyle requires increased economic and personal freedom – precisely the kind of freedom that underpins democratic societies.
At a time when more and more Russians are being denied passports to travel outside the country, those tempted by authoritarianism would do well to recall the elementary point made by John F. Kennedy in his Berlin speech in 1963. “Freedom has many difficulties, and democracy is not perfect,” Kennedy said. “But we never had to put up a wall to keep our people in.”


The Lost Khrushchev: A Journey into the Gulag of the Russian Mind

The Lost Khrushchev: A Journey into the Gulag of the Russian Mind

*2:彼女のクリミア問題に関する以前のProject Syndicate論説の一つはこちらで翻訳されている(阿修羅掲示板ではかなり手厳しく批判されている)。また、マレーシア機撃墜事件を大韓航空撃墜事件に準えたナショナルジオグラフィック記事こちらで邦訳されている。そのほか、こちらの日本語ブログ記事ではインタビュー動画が紹介されている。

*3:cf. Wikipedia