Tim Taylorが表題のエントリ(原題は「Demography Rebalances Asia」)で人口動態について以下のように書いている

Demographic shifts are about more than economics. Think about an array of social institutions: schools, parks, libraries, building and housing codes, public transportation, health care, the size of the volunteer sector. All of these, and many others, take on differing importance and shape when an economy has a relatively high number of children, or working-age people, or retirees.

そして、アジアの人口動態を取り上げたデロイトのVoice of Asia9月号*1から幾つかの図と文章を引用している。



India will account for more than half of the increase in Asia’s workforce in the coming decade. The consequences for businesses are vast: An Indian summer is coming, and it will last half a century. And while India’s rise might have the largest impact on the world, it isn’t the only economy set to surge, with Indonesia and the Philippines on track to enjoy similar trends. Both of these nations have a relatively young population, mainly because they still have birth rates in excess of the global average. This makes demographics a tailwind rather than a headwind for their growth across at least the next 20 years.



The potential implications of these patterns are substantial. For example, "China will get old before it fully succeeds in getting rich." The political implications of that fact, given that the Chinese Communist Party has essentially been using economic growth as a justification for maintaining its hold on power, could be severe. If China, which by some measures is now the largest economy in the world, follows Japan's pattern of aging and economic stagnation, it will have a powerful effect on the growth rate of the global economy.
Of course, there is no guarantee that the growth of India's working-age population will power economic growth. But there's a powerful opportunity for it to do so, if India can continue with economic and social reforms (for some discussion, see here and here).


There are already more over-65s in Asia than there are people in the United States. The number of over-65s in Asia will exceed one billion just after the middle of this century. In fact, by 2042—in just a quarter of a century—there will be more over-65s in Asia than the populations of the Eurozone and North America combined. Yes, you read that right: More people aged over 65 in Asia than the total combined populations of North America and the Eurozone, and in just 25 years from now.



Two underlying patterns that will affect these workforce trends are migration and female labor-force participation. Countries like China or Japan, with low labor force growth, will face some economic pressures to allow greater in-migration. Japan, with relatively low female labor-force participation, will face pressures for that figure to rise. India has extremely low female labor-force participation, but if India wishes to take full advantage of its working-age demographic boom, this will need to change.


It is of course not literally true that "demography is destiny," as an old saying has it, but it can matter a great deal for the growth rate and sectoral patterns of economies. With China's working-age share of its population topping out and India's on the rise, we are at the hinge of a demographic transition that will reshape relative economic (and probably also political) power across Asia.

*1:Voice of Asiaについては1月の初回号を紹介したデロイトトーマツ日本語HPを参照。

*2:Indian summerの原義は小春日和。

*3:cf. 本ブログでの紹介