というエントリをTimothy Taylorが上げている(原題は「When Trotsky (Temporarily) Embraced Prices and Markets」)。

The year was 1932. Leon Trotsky had been already been tossed out of the Communist Party and exiled from Stalin's Soviet Union. Writing from a distance, he found himself performing a balancing act: on one side, supporting the broad idea of the Revolution and the ultimate victory of socialism; on the other side, criticizing the first five-year economic plan as poorly designed and replete with failures. In his October 1932 essay, "The Soviet Economy in Danger," Trotsky finds himself arguing that Soviet bureaucrats were far too confident about economic central planning, and instead needed to rely more on prices and supply and demand.
Here are some snippets from Trotsky, which include a number of phrases and sentences that could have been written by a fierce critic of socialism like Friedrich Hayek. Trotsky's concerns include: the large costs of mistakes in centralized decision-making, problems in which quality of output is sacrificed in the drive for greater quantity, lack of coordination across production chains in the economy, how bureaucrats lack a "universal mind" and thus need to rely on supply and demand and "commercial relations." Of course, for Trotsky, all of this just proves that socialism is working.

Taylorがリンクしたmarxists.org(Marxists Internet Archive)サイトは、これまで本ブログでも一般理論の原文などを参照する際にリンクしたことがあったが、日本語ページも存在している。中でもトロツキーの文献は充実しており、今回のエッセイも邦訳が公開されているので、Taylorが引用した文章のうち中心的と思われる箇所を、その邦訳と共に以下に紹介してみる。

If a universal mind existed, of the kind that projected itself into the scientific fancy of Laplace – a mind that could register simultaneously all the processes of nature and society, that could measure the dynamics of their motion, that could forecast the results of their inter-reactions – such a mind, of course, could a priori draw up a faultless and exhaustive economic plan, beginning with the number of acres of wheat down to the last button for a vest. The bureaucracy often imagines that just such a mind is at its disposal; that is why it so easily frees itself from the control of the market and of Soviet democracy. But, in reality, the bureaucracy errs frightfully in its estimate of its spiritual resources. In its projections it is necessarily obliged, in actual performance, to depend upon the proportions (and with equal justice one may say the disproportions) it has inherited from capitalist Russia, upon the data of the economic structure of contemporary capitalist nations, and finally upon the experience of successes and mistakes of the Soviet economy itself. But even the most correct combination of all these elements will allow only a most imperfect framework of a plan, not more.
The innumerable living participants in the economy, state and private, collective and individual, must serve notice of their needs and of their relative strength not only through the statistical determinations of plan commissions but by the direct pressure of supply and demand. The plan is checked and, to a considerable degree, realized through the market. The regulation of the market itself must depend upon the tendencies that are brought out through its mechanism. The blueprints produced by the departments must demonstrate their economic efficacy through commercial calculation.
(湯川順夫・西島栄 訳)

*1:トロツキーの原文には「commercial calculation」という文言はあるが「commercial relations」という文言は無いので誤記のようにも思われるが、ここではそのまま訳した。